Part Two. Fashion at the center of the civil rights movement.


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During the mid 1970’s soul style declined in popularity in the US as movements rejuvenated in other parts of the black Diaspora.


Here we are going to explore how soul style looked when it was exported from the US to England and South Africa.


This is episode number Two of “Fashion at the center of the civil rights movement”. 


Black people arriving in the UK between 1948 and 1971 from Caribbean countries have been labelled the Windrush generation.


This is a reference to the ship MV Empire Windrush, which arrived on the 22nd of June 1948, bringing workers from Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago and other islands, as a response to post-war labour shortages in the UK.


Photo PA


The ship carried 492 passengers - many of them children.


The Guardian wrote in 2013.

"The history of black people in this country from Windrush until at least the 1970s is one of being treated as second-class citizens.”


As many afro caribbeans migrated to England after WWII, girls started to realize for the first time that they were outsiders. In the Caribbean Islands there was only one race they knew about. A race with many shades but all black. When they arrived in England they were confronted with a very different reality than in their caribbean countries. A white dominated country posed many challenges among afro caribbeans starting with their hair. 


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In the Caribbean culture, it was important that a girl wore her hair naturally because it was a sign of feminine beauty and potential as a wife. In the US it was the opposite, it was a sign of class mobility to have their hair coiffed. For jamaican mothers to have their daughters immaculate hair styled with plaits and ribbons was a sign of good parenting.


African American Madame CJ Walker expanded her beauty and hair care products empire around the 1920’s and 1930’s to the caribbean, she taught women to sell their products and also new methods to beautify themselves. But still the practice of doing their hair in public was not accepted, because of the notions of respectability, they wouldn't allow themselves to be seen in public at beauty salons. It was a secret to be kept that they were boosting their image.


Women in the caribbean only started to straighten their hair after they had more contact with white people.


Before the 1950’s there were almost no hair salons in Britain that would cater to black hair needs. So when all these women came from the islands they were in a completely new territory regarding their hair care. They were not comfortable styling it in public and because of the white dominated population, there were almost no products or places for them to go.


Also for spiritual reasons, black women believed that their hair was an intimate part of their beings and would not let a stranger touch it.


A younger generation started breaking with these views toward hairstyling. American advertisement and the mass production of hair care products marketed for black women made products more available. Advertisement made the process of beatification modern and chic.


In the 1970’s the beauty culture industry became very lucrative for black women. Hair care became a booming business in London allowing black women to become financially independent and also service people from their own community.


Girls that came at a young age from the caribbean to England wanting to celebrate their black identities started moving toward the nascent Blak Power movement.


Young students would gather at record stores and other black operated cultural institutions. Once the police discovered that black british teens were using such places as their cultural and political resistance they started intervening violently. 


It was this tension that gave way to the soul style expression in London. It was the afro wearing time. The late 1960’s and 1970’s were the days of soul, and they were the people of soul.


Women wore afros, bell bottoms, and black panther t-shirts and black panther tote bags with black power patches giving new political and cultural value to black bodies in white british society. But as seen by school officials and police this attire was confrontational. They had to battle to even wear their afros. 


Photo Kingship


The Black Panther Party was a revolutionary socialist political organization founded in the United States. Its core practice was its open carry armed citizens' patrols ("cop watching ") to monitor the behavior of officers of the Oakland Police Department and challenge police brutality in the city.


Black was a political affiliation and a cultural identity. South Asians also called themselves black in response to the segregation and common oppression faced as non whites in Britain. They were relegated to the poorest parts of town.


But souls' style was culturally back, it spoke of  a set of experiences specific to people of african descent so this distinction played an interesting role in the Brixton neighborhood.


Here we see an emergence of Afro caribbean youth culture developing in similar forms with very distinctive social meanings.


The London soul style blended African, Afro Caribbean and African American styles.